Main CPGW Record
Forename(s): Edwin Rawlinson
Place of Birth: Bentham, Yorkshire
Service No: 268646
Regiment / Corps / Service: Prince of Wales’s Own (West Yorkshire Regiment)
Battalion / Unit: 2/7th Battalion. (Leeds Rifles)
Division: 62nd (2/West Riding) Division
Date of Death: 1917-05-12
CWGC Grave / Memorial Reference: Bay 4.
CWGC Cemetery: ---
CWGC Memorial: ARRAS MEMORIAL
Non-CWGC Burial: ---
Local War Memorial: HIGH BENTHAM, YORKSHIRE
Edwin Rawlinson Smith was the son of Thomas and Emily Smith (née -). Thomas was born at Bentham and Emily at Austwick, Yorkshire.
1901 Bentham, Yorkshire Census: Main Street - Edwin R. Smith, aged 7 years, born Bentham, son of Thomas and Emily Smith.
1911 Bentham, Yorkshire Census: Mount Pleasant - Edwin Rawlinson Smith, aged 17 years, born Bentham, son of Thomas and Emily Smith.
British Army WW1 Medal Rolls Index Cards: Pte Edwin R. Smith, 8139 & 268646, West Yorkshire Regiment.
Edwin was killed in action during the Battle of Bullecourt, 3-17 May 1917.
Edwin is referred to in a letter written on the 7 July 1917 by L/Cpl John Hutchinson (q.v.).
A short biography of Edwin is included in: ‘Bentham’s Part in the Great War 1914-18’ by Allan and Marilyn Hartley (2019).
Data Source: Craven’s Part in the Great War - original CPGW book entryView Entry in CPGW Book
Entry in West Yorkshire Pioneer Illustrated War Record: ---
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Private Edwin Rawlinson SMITH
Regiment / Corps / Service Badge: Prince of Wales’s Own (West Yorkshire Regiment)
Divisional Sign / Service Insignia: 62nd (2/West Riding) Division
Soldiers Died Data for Soldier Records
Forename(s): Edwin Rawlinson
Regiment: Prince of Wales's Own (West Yorkshire Regiment)
Battalion: 2/7th Battalion
Died Date: 12/05/17
Died How: Killed in action
Theatre of War: France & Flanders
CWGC Data for Soldier Records
Forename(s): Edwin Rawlinson
Country of Service: United Kingdom
Service Number: 268646
Regiment: West Yorkshire Regiment (Prince of Wales's Own)
Unit: 2nd/7th Bn.
Died Date: 12/05/1917
Additional Information: Son of Thomas and Emily Smith, of Ivy Cottage, Bentham, Lancaster.
View Additional Text For Soldier Records
THE HISTORY OF THE 62nd (WEST RIDING) DIVISION 1914-1919 Volume 1, by Everard Wyrall (John Lane the Bodley Head Limited Vigo Street, London, W.)
THE BATTLE OF BULLECOURT:
3rd – 17th May, 1917.
During the three weeks following the first attack on Bullecourt on 11th April, the 62nd Division was engaged in trench warfare, and in preparing for another attack on the Hindenburg Line which had been ordered to take place on various successive dates and subsequently postponed, until it was definitely decided that Bullecourt should again be attacked on the 3rd May…
In the centre of the Divisional front, the troops of the 186th Infantry Brigade reached their allotted places by 3-30 a.m., though during the evening of the 2nd, the enemy’s artillery had caused considerable trouble – all forward telephone and telegraph wires having been cut and communication interrupted. The Signallers, however, repaired them and communication was re-established. The 2/5th Duke of Wellington’s (Lieut.-Col. F.W. Best) were on the right, the 2/6th (Lieut.-Col. S.W. Ford) on the left: the 2/7th Battalion (Lieut.-Col. F.G.C. Chamberlin) was in rear of the 2/5th and the 2/4th (Lieut.-Col. H.E. Nash) in the rear of 2/6th.
Three Companies of the 2/8th West Yorks. were formed up in rear of the 2/4th and 2/7th Battalions Duke of Wellington’s Regt., the remaining Company of the 2/8th having been detailed as a carrying party was in rear of the three Companies. The 213th Machine Gun Company supported the 186th Brigade.
On the left of the Divisional front, held by the 187th Infantry Brigade, the 2/4th Battalion York and Lancs. Regt. (Lieut.-Col. F. St. J. Blacker) was on the right, the 2/5th King’s Own Yorks. Light Infantry (Lieut.-Col. W. Watson) with two Companies of the 2/4th Battalion (Lieut.-Col. R.E. Power) of the same Regiment in rear of the two front line battalions, and the remaining two Companies of the 2/4th K.O.Y.L.I. were in rear of the 2/5th Battalion, detailed for ‘carrying’ duties. The 208th Machine Gun Company was in support.
The taping and forming up operations were carried out without serious casualties and were completed by 3-30 a.m., but Lieut.-Col. F. St. J. Balcker, D.S.O., commanding the Hallamshires, was wounded on the forming up line.
Shortly after two o’clock in the morning the moon disappeared and the night turned to inky blackness, but fifteen minutes before Zero all was ready for the attack. At this period the enemy put down a very heavy barrage on the 185th Infantry Brigade, which gradually spread along the whole front.
At Zero the creeping barrage opened on the enemy’s position and the assaulting troops began to move forward immediately. But now an unexpected difficulty presented itself: the warm weather had baked the ground hard and as the shells fell, churning it up, clouds of dust filled the air, and with smoke from the guns, and the smoke bombs, the objectives were hidden from the advancing troops, and there was much loss of direction.
The 2/5th West Yorks. on the left of the 185th Brigade front speedily captured the enemy’s first line trench, the wire entanglements having been well cut. The 2/6th Battalion, however, was not as fortunate: Colonel Hastings’ Battalion had been met by very heavy machine-gun fire which caused many casualties, and in the smoke and confusion sheared off towards the left, overlapping the right of the 2/5th Battalion. Meanwhile the latter had pushed on towards the centre of the village and had established two posts, one at U.27.b.6.8. and the other at U.21.d.5.0. At this point touch was lost with the 2/6th Battalion, though it was eventually established about the church. A pigeon message timed 5-15 a.m. from an officer of the left Company of the third and fourth waves of the 2/5th Battalion which reached Divisional Headquarters stated that the writer was in the communication trench at U.21.d.5.5. with about forty of his men.
On the left of the 185th Infantry Brigade, the 186th had accomplished only part of its task. The 2/5th Duke of Wellington’s found the wire cut and no difficulty was experienced in reaching the second German trench of the first objective. Here touch was obtained with the left of the 185th Brigade, and maintained for several hours until broken by enfilade machine-gun fire from both flanks. But the 2/6th Duke of Wellington’s found the wire uncut and their attack was held up. Hostile shell-fire and the rear waves closing in on the leading waves, added to the confusion and all that could be done was to occupy some shell holes in front of the enemy’s wire. An attempt was then made to cut the second belt of wire, but again machine-gun fire from the north, and the enemy’s activity with bombs frustrated this endeavour and finally the shell-holes were established as posts.
The 2/5th Duke’s had by this time established themselves in the enemy’s front line trench from U.21.d.1.0. to U.20.d.2.4. and had been reinforced by the 2/8th West Yorks.
Similarly on the left of the 186th Brigade, the 187th had met with success – and failure. The 2/5th York and Lancs. Regt. reached its first objective without difficulty, but the 2/4th Battalion was hung up by the thick wire entanglements which were insufficiently cut. In seeking to find a way through the Battalion moved off to its left and became intermingled with the 2/5th Battalion, whose right flank was ‘in the air.’ At about 4-20 a.m. Lieut.-Col. W. Watson, commanding the 2/5th K.O.Y.L.I. was killed as he was gallantly rallying his men and leading them forward.
For a while no reports from the right flank of the attack were received at Divisional Headquarters, and nothing could be ascertained as to what was taking place in the village of Bullecourt. At 6-50 a.m. the situation was so obscure that the protective barrage was ordered to remain on the second objective until a further advance could be organized. A little later (at 7 a.m.) the situation of the 185th Brigade appears to be as follows: Posts had been established at U.21.d.5.5. with a certain number of men further east along the Support line at U.21.d.5.9., U.27.b.6.8. and at the church (U.28.a.0.9.): the whole of the German front line trench as far east as U.27.b. had been occupied. Touch was maintained with the 2/5th Duke of Wellington’s Regt., on the western side of the village and in the trench running south from the Crucifix. But of the 2/6th West Yorks. little was known, and all attempts to communicate with or reach the probable position of the Battalion, failed. Large numbers of men of the Battalion – dead and wounded – were found in front of the German wire. A Company of the 2/7th West Yorks. was sent forward to try to reach their comrades of the 2/6th, but the men were met by a murderous machine-gun fire which swept the line of the advance and after having suffered heavy casualties the Company withdrew to the Railway Embankment.
Repeated attempts by the 186th and 187th Brigades to penetrate the enemy’s positions were frustrated, and at noon the little party of the 2/5th Duke’s and 2/8th West Yorks., were bombed out of their portion of the trench and were forced to take shelter in shell holes south and south-west of Bullecourt. The advance by the 2/5th K.O.Y.L.I., under Major O.C. Watson, at first progressed, but was eventually checked by heavy machine-gun fire and a continuous H.E. barrage.
At mid-day the situation was as follows: about fifty men per battalion of the 186th Infantry Brigade had found shelter on the Railway Line U.26.c. and d., the remainder of the Brigade was in the Sunken Road in U.27.a.5.8. and U.20.d.9.4.: of the 187th Brigade elements were in the Sunken Road in U.20.b. and in shell holes in U.20.c. and d.: the Company of 2/5th West Yorks. (185th Brigade) which had been driven out of the western side of Bullecourt, had also reached the Railway Line, the 2/7th West Yorks. were also at U.27.c. and d., on the Railway Line: but there was still no news of the 2/6th West Yorks.
Just after 5 o’clock in the evening orders from Divisional Headquarters to the three Infantry Brigades contained instructions to the Brigadiers to make every effort to reorganize their battalions on the line of their original fronts, in their own sectors: the 7th Division was to take over the front held by the 185th Infantry Brigade as soon as possible. The same orders stated that the VIIth Corps had taken Chérisy and the 2nd Australian Division (on the right of the 62nd Division) was in occupation of the Hindenburg Line from U.23.c.8.1. to U.22.d.6.3.
The failure of the 62nd Division to capture Bullecourt was due largely to a fault which certainly cannot be charged to the gallant troops who stormed the village and the Hindenburg Line in the vicinity. Neither could the Divisional Staff, which had laboured to make all arrangements as complete as possible, be blamed. It was due principally to an error in tactics which had so often failed in the earlier years of the war – notably at Festubert in 1915. The Australian Division on the right of the 62nd Division did not launch its attack side by side with the 2/6th West Yorks., the flanking battalion of the West Riding Division. There was a gap – a fatal gap – in the line of attack between the Colonials and the Yorkshiremen, the former having decided to attack the first objective frontally, only as far to the left as U.23.d.6.3., and then bomb down the Hindenburg Line westwards to the left boundary where touch was to be gained with the 185th Infantry Brigade. Thus some hundreds of yards of the enemy’s positions (unfortunately that portion which was very strongly defended by machine-guns) was left free to enfilade the 2/6th West Yorks. as that Battalion advanced: which indeed happened. In all justice to the Australian troops it must be noted that they reached their objective, but before they got there the West Yorkshiremen had been cut up and of those brave fellows who had penetrated the village the greater number had either been killed, wounded, or taken prisoner, only a hundred survivors getting back to their own trenches.
The inky blackness of the night, which caused much confusion during the forming-up operations, also contributed to the failure of the assault, many of the troops losing themselves and being entirely ignorant of the direction of the enemy’s trenches.
The enemy was in considerable strength, the 49th Reserve Division and the 27th Division was holding the Hindenburg Line between Fontaine and Riencourt (inclusive). The latter had with it the 1st Musketeen (Automatic Rifle) Battalion.
Many deeds of gallantry were witnessed during that attack, and the Division emerged from its first set battle sorely tried and tested and badly mauled, but with many proofs of its fighting qualities… The casualties of the 62nd (W.R.) Division on the 3rd May were: 116 officers and 2,860 other ranks, killed, wounded and missing…
The 62nd had been ‘Blooded’!
At dusk on the 3rd, the 185th Infantry Brigade was relieved by the 22nd Infantry Brigade (7th Division), only the 2/7th West Yorks. remaining in the line under the command of the General Officer Commanding 7th Division.
The remnants of the 2/5th, 2/6th and 2/8th West Yorks. were withdrawn to caves in Ecoust, to reorganize: on the following day they marched to Ervillers. The 186th and 187th Brigades remained in the line, the 62nd Divisional front now extending from the Mory – Ecoust – Bullecourt Road (inclusive) to the left of the Vth Corps boundary, Judas Farm – Sensee River, to along the road at T.24.a.9.4. – U.14.c.2.9…
The final attack on Bullecourt began on the 12th May when the 185th Infantry Brigade assisted the 7th (British) and 5th (Australian) Divisions, by attacking the enemy’s strong point at the Crucifix.
The 2/7th Battalion West Yorks. was detailed for this operation, the 185th Trench Mortar Battery and one Section of the 212th Machine-Gun Company co-operating. Two Companies of the Battalion – B and C – attacked the Crucifix at Zero (3-40 a.m.) pus 26 minutes, but for a while no information of the situation of the attacking troops was obtainable. The 91st Brigade (7th Division) had reached the centre of the village, capturing a few Germans, but here very heavy machine-gun fire held up any further advance. About 6-30 a.m., however, an aeroplane report was received at 62nd Divisional Headquarters which stated that men of the 2/7th could be seen well dug in at the Crucifix. But from this period onwards, throughout the day, nothing could be ascertained, it being impossible to gain touch with the gallant West Yorkshiremen holding the post at the Crucifix. Possibly one of those isolated fights to a finish which were not uncommon in the War, but of which no authentic records are in existence, took place. For at 8 p.m. another aeroplane reported that the Germans once more held the Crucifix. At 10 o’clock that night patrols which attempted to reach the post were driven back, thus confirming the aeroplane report. Subsequently a few odd men returned through the lines of the 1st South Staffords (7th Division), having lost their way, but of the two officers and thirty-one other ranks who were known to be holding the Crucifix none returned nor was any further information gained concerning their fate. Five killed, thirty-one missing and thirty-two wounded were the casualties suffered by the 2/7th West Yorks. in this affair…
Additional Photo(s) For Soldier Records
The High & Low Bentham men who gave their lives
Top row (l-r): Rfn Ernest Knight Newhouse, Pte John Thornber, Reverend Theodore Bayley Hardy, Pte Richard Wilson, Pte Maurice Richard Bolton, Lieut John Barclay Clibborn, Pte William Throup, Pte Richard Wilcock Carr, A/Cpl William Robinson, Pte James Auton, Pte William Savage. Third row (l-r): L/Cpl David Percival Dixon, Pte John Emmott, Pte Francis Richard Townson, Pte John Adamthwaite, Pte Robert Carter, L/Cpl John Hutchinson, Pte Alfred Edward Gunn, Pte Ezra Stephenson, Pte Edwin Rawlinson Smith, Pte Richard Wearing, Lieut Basil William Ramsbotton. Third row (l-r): Spr Robert Clark, Act L/Cpl Thomas Wilcock, Cpl William Carr, Pte Lawrence Lancelot Dowbiggin, Pte Edward Magoolagan, Pte Isaac Rucastle, Pte Henry Taylor, Cpl Edward Ramskill, L/Cpl Edward Walton Briscoe, Pte Joseph Jackson, Gnr Ernest Wilcock. Fourth row (l-r): Capt Donald Morrison, Sgt Arthur Dean Blackburn, Pte James William Bell, Pte Leonard Nelson, L/Cpl John Edward Leeming, L/Cpl Albert Lister, Pte Percy Preston Whitfield, Cpl Tom Harry Smith, Cpl Thomas Walker Sanderson, Sgt William Patrick Tobin, Pte (Signaller) W. Wilkinson.
Courtesy of the artist, David Hartnup
View Craven Herald Articles
29 December 1916
HIGH BENTHAM – News of Local Soldiers
Second-Lieutenant Wilfrid Wells, of the Machine Gun Section, is home on furlough, as is also Second-Lieut. Kenneth Turner, only son of Mr. Jas. Turner, of Bentham Lodge. Private John Jackson, Pte. Wm. Batty, of the Duke of Wellington’s; Pte. Edwin Smith, Leeds Rifles; Pte. Walter Leeming, R.F.A.; Pte. Joe Harrison, King’s Own; and Pte Walter Newhouse, K.R.F., are all home for Christmas furlough.
25 May 1917
HIGHER BENTHAM – PRIVATE EDWIN SMITH MISSING
Mrs. Smith, the widowed mother of Private Edwin Smith, has received word from his chaplain that he, along with his Lieutenant and some others, are all missing since Saturday morning 12th May. Private Smith joined the West Riding Regiment just seven months ago, and has been in France about five months. He was a hosepipe weaver for Messrs. Geo. Angus and Co. The Chaplain, writing to the mother on the 17th inst., said Pte. Smith was one of a bombing party which went out at dawn on May 12th, and they failed to return, although every effort was made to get in touch with them.
“The best we can hope is that they are prisoners in German hands, and, if this is the case, your son will probably have an opportunity of writing to you or to us before long. I can assure you that the officers and men of the battalion sympathise very deeply with you and with the other parents and relatives upon whom the blow has fallen. H.C. PARRY (Chaplain, West Yorks. Regiment).”
16 November 1917
HIGHER BENTHAM – MEMORIAL SERVICE
The second memorial service for soldiers killed at the Front was held at St. Margaret’s Church on Sunday afternoon. The sacred edifice was well filled by parishioners of every shade of religious and political opinions. The Vicar (the Rev. G. H. C. Bartley) officiated, and the service was choral, commencing with the opening sentences of the burial service, chanted, as a processional with the Union Jack was carried in front, draped with violet. Between the lessons the choir gave the anthem, ‘I heard a voice from Heaven’ very beautifully, and the Vicar read out the names of the fifteen heroes who have laid down their lives from the parish, as well as the three who are missing, and supposed killed, as follows:– Captain D. Morrison; Private Ed. Magoolaghan; Lance Corporal Joe Jackson; Captain S. C. Bartley (the Vicar’s brother); Corporal E. Leeming; Private Tom Wilcock; Captain G. G. Eccles; Private Ezra Stevenson; Private Len Nelson; Captain Pollard; Private Percy Whitfield (N.Z.); Corporal Wm. Robinson; Corporal Harry Smith; Corporal R. Clarke (missing); Private Lancelot Dowbiggin; Private Ed. Briscoe; Private Edwin Smith.
As the names were read out many tears were shed at the memory of the loved ones ‘Gone West’. Then followed an excellent sermon by the Vicar from the words ‘Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friend’, at the conclusion of which Miss V. Stubbs played the ‘Dead March’ whilst the congregation remained standing. The recessional hymn was ‘For all the Saints’, and at the close the organist played ‘I know that my Redeemer liveth’ as a voluntary. The entire service was of a very impressive character.
03 May 1918
HIGHER BENTHAM – Rifleman E. Smith Presumed Killed
The widowed mother of Rifleman Edwin Smith has received official information that he is presumed dead as from the 12th May last. He joined the ‘Dukes’ in October, 1916, and went to France 13th January, 1917. He was a hose weaver for Messrs. Angus and Co., and the only child of his widowed mother.
10 May 1918
SMITH – In loving memory of Edwin Rawlinson Smith, of 2/7 West Yorks., only son of the late Tom Smith (presumed killed at Bullecourt, May 12th, 1917), aged 23 years.
“Death cannot divide.”
From his loving mother, E. Smith, Mount Pleasant, Bentham.
10 May 1918
Rifleman E. Smith, Bentham
We reproduce a photograph of Rifleman Edwin Smith, Duke of Wellington’s Regiment, only son of Mrs. Smith, High Bentham, who, as reported in our columns last week, is officially reported dead as from May 12th, 1917. He went to France in January, 1917, and was, prior to joining, a weaver for Messrs. Angus and Co., Bentham.
21 June 1918
HIGHER BENTHAM – Memorial Service
A memorial service was held at St. Margaret’s Church on Sunday evening. The Vicar, the Rev. G. H. C. Bartley, officiated and there was a full choir, one member, Mr. Alec Procter, being present from the Front on leave. The service was held for the late Private Lancelot Dowbiggin, Corporal Ernest Newhouse M.M., Private John Maudsley, Sergeant Walker Sanderson M.M., Private Edwin Smith, and Private Richard Wilcock Carr – six of the Bentham heroes to make the great sacrifice during the past six months. There was a large congregation, special hymns were sung and a most sympathetic sermon was delivered by the Vicar. At the close the Dead March was played by the organist, Miss. V. Stubbs.
09 May 1919
SMITH – In loving memory of Rifleman Edwin Rawlinson Smith, 2/7th West Yorks., only son of the late Tom Smith, Mount Pleasant, Bentham, presumed killed at Bullecourt, May 12th, 1917.
“One who rests in an unknown grave.”
Ever remembered by his loving mother, Emily Smith, Mount Pleasant, Bentham.
07 May 1920
SMITH – In loving memory of Private Edwin Rawlinson Smith, of 2/7th West Yorks., only son of the late Tom Smith; presumed killed at Bullecourt, May 12th, 1917, aged 23 years.
Ever remembered by his loving mother, Emily Smith, Mount Pleasant, Bentham.
View West Yorkshire Pioneer Articles
16 November 1917
MEMORIAL SERVICE – The second memorial service for soldiers killed at the front was held at St. Margaret’s Church on Sunday afternoon last. The sacred edifice was well filled by parishioners of every shade of religious and political opinion, and the service was of a solemn and reverent character. The vicar (Rev. G.H.C. Bartley) officiated , and the service was choral. It commenced with the opening sentence of the burial service being chanted as a processional. The Union Jack was carried in front, draped with violets. Between the lessons the choir gave the anthem ‘I heard a voice from Heaven,’ and the Vicar read the names of the 15 dead men belonging to the parish who have laid down their lives, as well as of the three who are missing and supposed killed, viz., Capt. D. Morrison. Pte. Ed Magoolaghan, Lance-Corpl. Joe Jackson, Capt. S.C. Bartley (the Vicar’s brother), Corpl. B. Leeming, Capt. Pollard, Pte. Tom Wilcock, Capt. G.[C.] G. Eccles, Pte. Ezra Stevenson, Pte. Len Nelson, Pte. Percy Whitfield (N.Z.). Corpl. Wm. Robinson, Corpl. Harry Smith, Corpl R. Clark; missing, Pte. Lancelot Dowbiggin, Pte. Ed. Briscoe and Pte. Edwin Smith. Then followed an excellent sermon by the Vicar from the words “Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friend.” At the conclusion of the sermon Miss V. Stubbs played the ‘Dead march,’ the congregation standing. The processional hymn was ‘For all the saints,’ and at the close the organist played ‘I knew that my Redeemer liveth.’ The service was of a very impressive character throughout.
21 June 1918
MEMORIAL SERVICE – A memorial service was held at St. Margaret’s Church on Sunday evening last. The Vicar (Rev. G.H.C. Bartley) officiated, and there was a full choir. The service was held for the late Pte. Lancelot Dowbiggin, Corpl. Ernest Newhouse, M.M., Pte. John Maudsley, Sergt. Walker Sanderson, M.M., Pte. Edwin Smith, and Pte. Richard Wilcock Carr, six of the heroes to make the great sacrifice during the past six months. There was a large congregation, and special hymns were sung. A most sympathetic sermon was delivered by the Vicar. At the close the ‘Dead March’ was played by the organist (Miss V. Stubbs), the congregation standing meanwhile.
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